|9 January||-||The French expedition lands 3,000 men in Vera Cruz. There is no opposition. The French slowly expand their area of influence around the port, but without combat.||-|
Lorencez sets off. The entire
expeditionary force now
numbers some 7,300 soldiers.
|end-March||Ahuacatepec||Colonel de la Pena (Liberal) defeats Colonel Tovar.||Anales|
|10 April||Izucar de Matamoros||General Cobos defeats General Alatriste.||Anales|
|19 April||Fortin||A small squadron of French cavalry attack retiring Mexicans, under General Zaragoza. The first (small scale) confrontation between French and Mexicans.||Avenel Dabbs|
|28 April||Las Cumbres de Aculzingo||The Mexicans oppose the French on the last natural obstacle in front of Puebla: the steep slopes at the edge of the Anahuac plateau above Acultzingo. The Mexicans have 4,000 men, with three batteries and 200 cavalry. The French initially send in two battalions, then add reinforcements until reaching 14 companies as resistance is steady. After 3 hours the defenders are pushed off. French report losses as light, though the Mexicans claim 500 casualties.||
defeats General Marquez, who is trying to get through to the French
column marching on Puebla.
|5 May||Cinqo de Mayo||The
assault the Guadeloupe fort
outside Puebla and are
driven off with extremely heavy losses. The French then retire from
Puebla, awaiting reinforcements from France.
|14 May||Borrego||Captain Diétrie defeats General Ortega.||Anales|
|17 May||Barranca Seca||
|General Tapia, commanding a Liberal army of 500 cavalry and 1,500 infantry, attacks General Marquez who is on his way to link up with the French. Colonel l’Hériller dispatches the 99th Line, who attack the Liberals at the bayonet and the drive them off in disorder, saving their allies. Casualties are heavy on both Mexican armies, light for the French.||Avenel|
|10 June||-||General Douay disembarks at Vera Cruz with the rest of the initial French forces.||-|
|13 June||Cerro Borrego||The Liberals sneak a large force with guns onto an unguarded hill above the town of Orizaba, main base of the French. They are driven off by an attack at night.||Avenel Pierron|
|14 June||Orizaba||General Zaragoza approaches Orizaba from the south. Both sides shell each other for a while but neither makes any other aggressive moves. Zaragoza retires overnight.||Avenel Pierron|
|-||-||French reinforcements pour into Vera Cruz. 21 September General Forey; early October General Neigre, 17 October Generals Bazaine and Castagny. French forces now number 17,000+.||-|
|19 October||Tepic||Colonel Corona unsuccessfully attacks Lozado in the town.||Anales|
|??||Tuxpan||General Carvajal gathers an army to defend Huasteca. With a force of about 1,200 men he defeats Imperialist Colonel Manuel Llorente in a battle for the port.||Arms
|Early December||Jalapa||General Marquez defends the city against the Liberals.||Avenel|
Bazaine, leading the
reinforcements from France, marches on Puebla. His outlying forces
Mexicans along the way. CFFH mentions combats at Cerro Leone, Cerro
Gordo and Lorgano.
|January||Perote||During a march a battalion of the 62nd Line is attacked by forces under Miron.||Dabbs|
with several major attacks. The Mexicans allies, under Marquez, bear
the brunt. This may include the action at Los Llanos, where
CFFH notes the
12th Chasseurs coming to the rescue of a convoy guarded by the 51st
|10 March||Jocotopec||Colonel Rojas, commanding the Army of the East, takes the town, then shoots his Conservative prisoners.||Anales|
starts. The French use
conventional tactics with saps and artillery bombardments. The French
have 30,000 men (8,000 of them Mexican). The defenders have 22,000,
plus the 8,000 strong Army of the Centre which attempts to run in
supplies and fights guerrillas.
|22 March||Cholula||Avenal has General Mirandol repelling an attack by 2,000 Liberal cavalry under Comonfort. CFFH has this action won by 2 squadrons of the Chasseurs d'Afrique and conflicting information on whether the 12th Chasseurs fought.||Avenel
||The first major action at the siege: the fort falls after a hard-fought engagement.||-|
||The convent is taken by assault. The siege itself is now a series of small actions to take individual city blocks, with very heavy losses on both sides.||Avenel|
|14 April||Ateixco||A regiment out foraging under Colonel Brincourt is attacked. Grouping his party he forced the Liberals to retreat, then follows up to San Lorenzo, again inflicting severe casualties.||Dabbs|
||The fort is attacked, but resists.||Avenel|
||Liberal General O’Horan leaves Puebla with a cavalry corps and attempts to bring a convoy into the city, but fails.||Avenel|
||The convent holds off an attack, with the French suffering extremely heavily. The French now move mostly to a strategy of starving out Puebla.||-|
|30 April||Camerón||A company of the Foreign Legion is trapped by a large Liberal contingent while scouting along the supply route to the siege at Puebla. The Legionnaires fight until all dead or wounded.||Avenel|
encounters occur around the siege. CFFH notes an action at Atlisco
where all three regiments of the Chasseurs d'Afrique fought.
|5 May||San Pablo del Monte||The
under Comonfort try to
through the siege lines into the city (at night?). Their army has
5-7,000 men and
8-13 guns. This attack is 1,000 cavalry plus supporting infantry and
artillery, and is held off by some Chasseurs d'Afrique and
some of the 99th Line.
|6 May||San Lorenzo||
Comonfort tries to
get through to Puebla (at
night?), pushing off General Marquez’s troops, only to be
French column. This may be the action CFFH calls Altixco, in which
case it is the 3rd
|8 May||San Lorenzo||
In a large
surprise attack, General
Bazaine (with Marquez) sweeps Comonfort
from the field.
||Attempted break-out of Puebla.||Dabbs|
city surrenders as
food and ammunition run out. Approximately 27 generals and 12,000 men
||The French enter Mexico city.||-|
well as the Vera Cruz
to Mexico City axis, the French spread across the eastern coast,
largely unopposed. Cities around Mexico City fall unopposed into French
Zouaves and 5th
Hussars (on foot) clear this pass, defended by 800 Mexicans.
|28 August||Duranzo||Tovar (Imperial) defeats Rojas in a six-hour combat. Rojas has 29 dead and 43 wounded.||Anales|
|8 November||-||After a long pause the French reorganise and set out to extend their grip. A southern column pushes General Diaz back into Oaxaca while a northern one secures the cities of the central plateau. The French are generally not opposed and inevitably win if they are.||-|
|ca. November||Iguala||General Marquez dispatches part of his force and relieves the town, where General Taboada had been being besieged by Porfirio Diaz.||Dabbs|
|mid-November||Taxco||The town falls to Porfirio Diaz, who takes 271 prisoners.||Anales|
||Liberal Comonfort killed when he is ambushed by pro-Imperial guerrillas at a rancho near Queretaro, while out with his staff (100 men).||Dabbs Anales|
Berthier (with Marquez)
successfully defends the city
against the furious
attack of Uraga (12,000 men and 36 guns). (Some disagreement on whether
the French are present.)
barricades of the
town are over-run and the enemy pursued. It would seem that this was
done by three squadrons of French cavalry.
|27 December||San Luis Potosi||General Mejia occupies the city despite a counter-attack from General Negrete.||Avenel|
Chasseurs and a
mountain battery are present here, as part of the Douay column, during
the pursuit of General Uraga.
|29 January||Teocaltiche||A French flying column of a battalion on mules and cavalry attacks Liberals (500 men, 2 guns?) in the town and take it within 30 minutes.||Loizillon|
|c20 January||Penjamillo||Imperial Mexican troops inflict a costly defeat on the Liberal troops under General Peña y Barragan (who had entered the town and were looting it).||Dabbs|
|3 February||Valle de Santiago||The 51st and 95th Line, plus mounted Mexican auxiliaries, tangle with the guerrillas of Cantarido.||CFFH|
|27 February||San Juan Bautista (SE)||Evacuated by French marines and allies under pressure from General Diaz.||Avenel|
|28 February||Minatitlan||Also evacuated.||Avenel|
surround 30 men of Lozada
in a Church. They surrender when artillery is brought forward (and are
mountain battery) overwhelms a rearguard
in a hacienda
and then pursues the remainder of Gutierrez’s band into the
Maria Chavez takes the town
in a bloody massacre. The next day Captain Crainvilliers catches him by
surprise and routs him.
||Mazatlan||Colonel Ochoa fends off an attempt to take the town by the French (landing troops from the warship Cordelière).||Arms
pied (another battalion is
noted for an action on 5 February).
of the more
legere d'Afrique, 12th
||Cosautlan||Infaterie legere d'Afrique with Mexican allies.||CFFH
crushes the 500 men of
who retire from the city barricades into a church. There is heavy
fighting and Mejia is killed. The 12th Chasseurs charge the rear-guard
of the Liberals.
|Liberal Doblado (6,000 men) attacks General Mejia, forcing him back into the plaza. The Imperialists are rescued by the 62nd Line, Chasseurs d'Afrique and artillery under Colonel Aymard attacking into Doblado's flank and rear (the French were working from captured letters, so knew Doblado’s plans).||Avenal
|ca. 30 May||Zacoalco||A
column, under Colonel Garnier,
men of Rojas, who flee pretty much immediately.
companies of the Infaterie
legere d'Afrique with 350 Mexican infantry defeat the Liberals' 150
cavalry and 500 infantry..
|August||San Antonio||7th Line fights in Teotitlan campaign||CFFH|
|August||Ayotla||7th Line fights in Teotitlan campaign||CFFH|
|17 August||Rancho de Rodea||Liberal General Cantarito killed.||Dabbs|
||-||From this point there was almost no direct opposition to French expansion. The columns send out by the French get smaller and smaller as a result.||-|
pied fight at this hacienda.
||Cerro de Majoma
under Ortega attacks a
force of 530 French (Zouaves, 12th Chasseurs?) and 80 Mexicans and is
defeated after a very hard fought engagement, with casualties heavy on
|French Marines had been landed on 22 August, and hold out against attacks until the arrival of relief under General Mejia.||Dabbs
30 cavalry (12th Chasseurs), perhaps also artillery, rout the 300 men
squadron of the 12 Chasseurs
help free the 5 companies of the 1st Zouaves and artillery encircled by
the 4,000 men of General Ortega.
|22 December||San Pedro||Colonel Rosales, with 400 men, completely defeats Colonel Gazielle, with 500 French and Algerians (and perhaps marines).||Anales|
||-||By the end of the year only the states of Michoacan (E), Chihuahua (N) and Oaxaca (S) are still under Liberal control with alliegance to Juarez. (However, other outlying states are attempting to become independent or resisting the Empire separately.)||-|
|1 January||Espinazo del Diablo||Colonel Garnier defeats Corona, taking 14 prisoners, who he shoots.||Anales|
|10 January||Veranos||A night attack by guerrillas on a company of French line (left as garrison) and a few Mexican stragglers causes very heavy losses. The village is burnt in reprisal.||?
|13 January||Mazatlan||A French relief column relieves the encircled town.||Avenel|
besieged by a French column
of 5,500 men (only a few of the cavalry being Mexican). Porfirio Diaz
had an army of 7,000,
of which 3,000 are regular, plus another 700 under his son,
|28 January||Rancho de Potrerillos||A contra-guerrilla force (110 French, 50 Mexican cavalry) attack Rojas by surprise, killing him and capturing very large amounts of material.||Loizillon
|ca. 1 February||Sinaloa province||A
column of 64
Marines and 64
|ca. 1 February||San Luis area||A
column of 3
companies of Zouaves (150
men) lose 50 men after being caught in inhospitable terrain on a
march to Mexico City.
|4 February||Oaxaca||The city falls after a brief siege. French losses are extremely low.||Avenel|
legere d'Afrique in the
follow-up to Oaxaca.
legere d'Afrique in the
follow up to Oaxaca.
|ca. 24 February||Los Reyes||A
column of 120
Zouaves, 5 French
sappers plus supporting Mexicans (87 infantry, 90 cavalry) under
Loizillon storm the village before retiring. Liberals were the groups
of Regulares and Salazar.
||Zitacuaro||The Imperial garrison is almost entirely wiped out by the guerrillas of Ugalde and Traspena.||Duschene|
|2 March||Callejon de la Laja||A small Austro/Mexican/Sudanese force was ambushed in a defile.||Hill|
|29 March (?)||Saltillo||Negrete storms the town for the Liberals.||Roeder|
|end March||Guaymas||Colonel Garnier takes the town..||Anales|
clearance of this province, the 5th Hussars charge the Liberals under
Regulares (3,500 men) three times and then pursue. The 81st Line is
General Jeaningros (2
battalions Legion, 2 squadrons of Chasseurs d'Afrique, 1 battery) sweep
General Negrete's troops away on their way to Saltillo. There is
mention of the Contre-Guerillas here too (though for 8 June).
|early 1865||-||The Liberals are now at their lowest effect militarily. However from time to time entire Imperial Mexican units desert to the enemy, at least in part due to Maximilian’s trimming of his army.||-|
|23 July||Guaymas||The French in this town are encircled by hostile guerrilla forces (they had arrived by sea) until Colonel Garnier breaks through and occupies Hermosillo with 550 men. He then reconciles the local Indian tribes and the Liberal party are crushed.||Avenel|
|April||-||The French now number 28,000; plus there are 6,000 Austrians and 1,300 Belgians. The Mexican forces of Maximilian number 20,000 plus a further 8,500 Guardas (urban and rural).||Anales|
|11 April||Tocambaro||A column of four Belgian companies and a small Mexican squadron is caught in the town by a large number of Liberals under Regulares and surrender after a long fight.||Duchesne Pierron|
|23 April||?||Colonel de Potier defeats Regulares.||Avenel|
|mid-1865||-||Several campaigns on the eastern coast (Guerrero/Michoacan) fail to make much headway.||-|
|June||Rio de Lerma||Nauroy,
100 Zouaves and 150
Mexicans, is forced
to retire into the town's redoubt by Pueblita, but holds out until
nightfall. The Liberals then retire.
||A drive is made by the French on Juarez in the north, against almost no direct opposition.||-|
|Colonel Van Den Smissen’s Belgian and Mexican force (800 men) defeats General Arteaga (3,000 men).||Duchesne
|1 August||? (Chihuahua)||General Brincourt defeats Negrete||Anales|
Chasseurs d'Afrique and two companies of mounted Zouavaes supprise the
enemy at this hacienda, killing 180.
|8 August||?||A company of the 95th line is crushed by General Villagran’s guerrillas.||Avenel|
the Infanterie leger
d'Afrique forces the pass here, with the 2nd Zouaves and engineers
coming to their assistance.
|? August||near Jalapa||Austrians suffer a check?||Loizillon|
|22 September||Alamos (Sonora)||Victory for the Imperialist Jose Almada over Rosales.||Anales|
|28 September||Bagdad||General Escobedo (Liberal) attacks General Mejia, but is driven off when the French navy arrives.||Avenel|
||Colonel Mendez wins, capturing Generals Arteaga and Salazar. They are shot as reprisal for a guerrilla attack on a train which had caused numerous civilian and military casualties.||Avenel
|October||Ahuacatlan||64 Austrians hold out for three hours, before surrendering. (Not sure if any Imperial Mexicans were present).||CFFH|
for the Zouave
mule-mounted company at this hacienda against guerrillas.
|19 October||Santa Estera
||30 Austrians are wiped out in an ambush, their 200 Mexican auxiliaries abandoning them..||CFFH|
|ca. 22 October||Figueroa||120
plus French destroy a Liberal force.
(7 companies, 1 squadron) with Mexican auxiliaries and 6 guns
unsuccessfully assaults the town in a three pronged attack.
succeeds, with a bayonet charge of the barricades, and the Liberals
take heavy losses.
|25 November||Los Lermas||A squadron of the 12th Chasseurs go to the aid of the besieged city of Monterey. The French cavalry fake a retreat, drawing the opposing Mexicans into favourable terrain, before turning to charge.||CFFH|
|November||Matamoros||General Mejia successfully defends against Juarez (3,000 men, some Americans, 11 guns)||Avenel|
platoon of the Infaterie
legere d'Afrique and Mexican allies entering the town are attacked by
180 Liberals barricaded there, and are forced to retire after 7 hours
|early 1866||-||The French now start a policy of withdrawing from the edges of the country.||-|
Franche of the 95th Line
attack 300 Mexicans.
|4 January||Bagdad||Escobedo, supported by American Negro regulars, takes the town from 40 Austrians and 150 Mexicans and then voluntarily withdraws on 25 January.||Avenel|
|7 January||Alamos (Sonora)||A victory for General Martinez.||Anales|
|28 January||Tehuantepec||Maximilianist victory.||Avenel|
|20 February||La Loma de la Magdalena||General
(Maximilian) wins a
victory over Regulares near Uruapan. Casualties were heavy in the 3
hour battle: the losers had 200 dead + 300 prisoners; the winners 150
men dead and wounded.
|February||San Jacinto||General Miramon (Maximilian) is defeated. Circa 100 Imperial Gendarmes of French extraction are executed.||Avenel|
|1 March||Santa Isabel||A
Legion with Mexican allies
under Colonel Bryand attack the Liberals under General
(perhaps 1,000 men). Both sides suffer very heavy
casualties, but the Imperials are soundly defeated and all the French
are killed or taken captive. Note: the sources all give extremely
varying numbers but it seems that there were ~150 French, ~150 Mexican
cavalry allies and similar Mexican foot
|7 March||-||Bazaine fixes the objectives of the French forces as occupation of three main axes of communication, with troops not to stray more than 20 km from these.||Avenel|
Mexicans face 700 French,
including a squadron of Chasseurs d'Afrique, who succeed in driving off
the enemy after a 4 hour defence of the town.
successfully assault the
town. The French had left 500 Mexicans behind as a garrison when they
left on 31 January. Contributing to the success was artillery fire on
an important part of the defence.
(Imperialist) pursues and
fights Cortina’s men, including some Americans, twice.
||Marin||Belgians and Mexican cavalry under Quiorja chase away a force of Mexican cavalry.||Loiseau|
the 95th Line merits
praise directly from Marshal Bazaine.
|6 June||Matamoros||Mejia capitulates to Carbajal, embarking at Matamoros for Vera Cruz.||Anales|
||General Olvera’s column (1,500 men, including 300 Austrians) on the way to Matamoros to support General Meija is crushed by 3-5,000 Liberals, plus Americans.||Avenel
|18 June||Charco Redondo||Belgians
4 casualties. This may
be the action noted in CFFH as Catorce,
in which case there were Legion and Infanterie legere d'Afrique present.
Bataillon d'Afrique and some cavalry under Commandant de la Hayrie
attack the town. The first grinds to a halt after the initial surprise,
but the arrival of the second allows the Liberals to be driven from the
town. (CFFH adds a small number of Mexican allies.)
|1 August||Tampico||Captain Langlois’s 200 contra-guerrillas and 500 Mexicans are attacked by 2,500 Liberals under Pavon. Most of the Mexicans desert and the town surrenders on 7 August.||Avenel
Noria del Custodio
(cavalry and mule
mounted infantry (Zouaves)) suprise and destroy an enemy force.
|4 September||Guadalupe||General Martinez defeats General Tanori and Captain Lamberg.||Anales|
|5 September||Ures||General Martinez follows up his victory of the day before, winning another action and taking the town.||Anales|
|11 September||El Grande||Lieutenant Hoop defeats a Mexican unit, but falls into an ambush while pursuing them.||CFFH|
|25 September||Ixmiquilpan||An attempted surprise attack by a Belgian column (250 infantry in carts, 90 mounted) goes wrong. They retire in good order over a 48 hour period but with substantial losses. The Liberals number some 300 infantry and 500 cavalry)||Duchesne|
attempting to prevent
Diaz from besieging
Oaxaca, has his men routed by Diaz. Avenel gives the Imperialists 1,200
Anales has the force numbering 3,000, with a small portion of that
French and Austrian.
with an Austro-Mexican
men, mostly Austrians) attempts to relieve the siege of Oaxaca, but is
routed by Diaz in
brief battle. Diaz had 3,600 men. He resumes the siege of Oaxaca two
days later. The city capitulates on the 31st.
|11–13 November||Mazatlan||Liberals attack 62nd Line (now in the process of withdrawing back to France).||Avenel
|10 November||Guayabo||The Liberals defeat the French bandit Colonel Berthelin, killing him and 40 of his men (mixed French and Mexican)||Anales|
|11 November||Jalapa||The city falls to Juaristas, although a French/Austrian relief force is on the way.||Dabbs|
Escobedo besiege the
city, which is held by
Canales, another Liberal but Ortegista. (I have no idea if any actual
|18 December||Coronilla||Colonel Parra defeats 700 men under Sayan. Losses are said to be 150 dead, mostly French and 370 prisoner, including 101 French.||Anales|
||-||The first French troops embark at Vera Cruz in the withdrawal. By now the French have long since lost any interest in the war and are even negotiating with the Liberals to ensure a peaceful evacuation.||Dabbs|
|26 January||Sauz||General Antillon defeats General Liceaga heavily in a dawn action.||Anales|
|26 January||Guanajuato||General Antillon defeats General Liceaga late in the day..||Anales|
|27 January||Zacatecas||General Aranda is defeated by Miramon (1,500 men, including many cavalry + artillery) who forces his way into the town (Corti says 4,000 men). Juarez is almost caught in the retreat. Austrians and many French in Gendarmes on Maximilianist side, US Legion of Honor on Liberal side.||Arms
retiring from Zacatecas, is
routed at this hacienda by the Liberals under Escobedo, with 200 dead,
more wounded and
500 prisoners (Corti says 1,500). The 139 Frenchmen are later shot.
|4 February||Quemada||General Castillo defeats General Herrera y Cairo.||Anales|
|5 February||-||Bazaine leaves Mexico City at the head of the last French troops.||-|
|5 March||Queretaro||The siege of the city commences. The defenders have 9,000 men but most of the foreigners are not present. At some point, probably early, the American Legion of Honor joins the Liberal camp, which numbers around 25,000 (and growing).||Avenel
||The defenders take this hill, outside Queretaro, but cannot hold it.||Avenel|
|14 March||Queretaro||A double pronged Liberal attack: one from the Cerro San Pablo and Cerro de San Gregorio is repulsed by a counter-attack, while a long and confused struggle for Cruz also fails, with the attackers losing quite a few prisoners. Then another assault on Casa Blanca also fails.||
||The defenders take this outlying town of Queretaro, but cannot hold it.||Avenel|
and Vidaurri break out of the city
in the middle of the night with 1,200 men (all cavalry?). They ride to
||An assault of this important bastion of Queretaro results in heavy casualties on both sides (in the thousands) but the intervention of Imperial cavalry appears the decisive feature in the repulse of the Liberals.||Avenel
|March||Puebla||Diaz invests the city, which has a garrison of around 2,500. It capitulates on 2 April (after an attack?).||Avenel
assault. Corti has it as a
sortie on San Gregorio.
men, 17 guns) is defeated in a bloody battle by the greatly superior
forces of Diaz while attempting to relieve
the city of Puebla. (It is possible the Mexican portion wavered upon
news of the fall of Puebla, leaving only the foreign elements as
reliable troops for Marquez.)
|12 April||Mexico City||A siege commences, as Diaz follows up the defeated Marquez. It was never pressed very hard, despite the defenders not having very many men (4,500?).||Avenel
|27 April||Battle of the Cemetary||
developed initially from a surprise sortie to seize provisions. It
was won by Miramon for the Imperialists, leading 2,800 men, against
Ramon Corona. 20 guns
and 500 prisoners were taken back into the city. Both sides had cavalry
in numbers. This battle is often dated 26 April.
|1 May||Calleja||A break-out attempt from Queretaro under Colonel Rodriguez fails.||Avenel
defeated heavily. The
defenders now number only about 5,000 men.
||Queretaro||A frontal attack fails, in great part due to the defending artillery.||Avenel|
|14 May||Queretaro||Another breakout is about to be attempted (with the aim being to die in the field rather than penned up) but a traitor in the Imperial camp lets the Liberals into a vital spot in the defence.||Avenel Roeder|
|20 June||Mexico City||The city surrenders. The final blow for the defenders is the (late arriving) news of Maximilian’s death: at which point the foreigners defending refuse to fight on. Althought the siege was not pressed particularly hard, the American Legion of Honor certainly engaged the defenders.||Avenel
|1865–1866||Morelia||Belgians suffer 7 casualties.||Duchesne|
|Autumn 1865?||Sabinas River||Imperials beat Liberals. Ex-Confederates fighting for Maximilian lose 27 killed, 37 wounded; Liberals lose 200 killed.||Davis|
1,800 Liberals under Martinez are routed by a squadron of the Chasseurs
d'Afrique, some 12th Chasseurs a cheval and the 51st Line.
catches Guittierez, killing
15 of his men and taking 45 prisoner.
|late||Matehuala||500 troops of 82nd line commanded by Major Henri Pierron are besieged by 2,000 Republicans under Escobedo. Maximilian forces under Shelby (ex-Confederates) attack the republican rear and break the siege. There is mention of French cavalry in the action.||Davis|
|late?||Monterey||A Mexican Imperial garrison, having lost much of the town, are on the point of conceding when a 110 man party from the Bataillon d'Afrique under Commandant de la Hayrie makes a surprise attack into General Escobedo's rear after a forced march. The Imperialists then hold out for 24 hours, only to sally out once again to catch the enemy between them and the arriving column of General Jeaningros.||Elton|
|late 1866||Cautitlan||Miramon defeats the Liberals||Elton|
garrison holds off an attack by the 300 men of Flores, despite the
Liberals' use of Contre-guerilla uniforms in an attempt to sneak into
|early 1866||Penjamo||51st Line (Michoacan campaign).||CFFH|
|early 1866||Bajio||51st Line (Michoacan campaign).||CFFH|
bands of Brigido Torres and Numez Lesdema.
Hussars, 3rd Zouaves and regular Mexican cavalry allies while relieving
the Austrians at Tlaxcala.